A class of hormones known as POMC peptides, which regulate body weight, acts differently in females than in males, according to a collaboration of researchers across four continents. The difference appears to make it harder for females to lose weight.
POMC peptides are produced in the brain and play a role in appetite, calorie burning and physical activity, all of which impact overall body weight. When people were given the weight-reducing medication lorcaserin, males experienced significant weight loss, pushing them back into the healthy range, whereas females saw much smaller weight losses and remained obese.
In females, the source of POMC peptides reduces appetite, but it does not raise physical activity or calorie burning the way it does in males.
Two of every three adults and one in three children and adolescents in the United States are overweight or obese, according to the National Institutes of Health.
"These findings provide evidence that males and females are hard-wired differently in their regulation of energy balance," the study's authors wrote in the journal Molecular Metabolism. "Given the reported reduction of POMC neuron activity in middle age people, this data may have ... broad implications for future sex-specific strategies in treating overweight [problems] and obesity."
Want to know just how worried Bernie Sanders has Hilary Clinton?
Check out this graph below:
STILL WONDERING IF CLIMATE CHANGE HAS ANY EFFECT ON US, BUNKY? (Weather is what happens in your neck of the woods, while climate is what happens on a global scale!)
First of all a major ice age about 70,000 years ago reduced the human population from millions to just tens of thousands of people, all huddled in the southern tip of Africa ......., and when they finally recovered by 50,000 years ago the population climbed back up into the millions again.
In a new feat of high-powered genetic research, a group of scientists has found that the human population of Europe went through dramatic changes over 10,000 years ago, as a result of sharp swings of the Earth’s climate that went from a major glacial period to a warm period, then snapped back to a freeze again over the course of millennia. (This is also what did in the last of the Neanderthals.)
As these events occurred, humans in Europe first experienced a “bottleneck” when their numbers decreased during the last Glacial Maximum roughly 25,000 to 19,500 years ago, says the new research, published Thursday in Current Biology. But later, as a warm period kicked in around 14,500 years ago, it looks like this population was replaced or overwhelmed by a genetically somewhat different one, which may have been able to migrate into the area, thanks to retreating ice.
The paper calls this “surprising evidence of a major population turnover in Europe around 14,500 years ago,” at the same time when there was also “a period of climatic instability.”
“I think it’s a very interesting correlation, and I don’t think this correlation is just by chance, especially for those hunter-gatherer cultures who are largely dependent on the environment,” said Johannes Krause, one of the study authors and a researcher at the Institute for Archaeological Sciences at the University of Tübingen in Germany.
The study, based on 55 early modern human genomes from the period between 35,000 and 7,000 years ago, examined mitochondrial DNA — DNA that is contained within cellular structures called mitochondria rather than in the nucleus where most of our genetic material is located, and is passed down from mothers to their offspring.
Examining this DNA, scientists have found slight mitochondrial differences between Asians, Australians and Native Americans on the one hand, and Europeans on the other. European mitochondrial DNA today shows what is called the “N” lineage, or “haplogroup,” but not what is called an “M” lineage. By contrast, Asian, Australasian and Native Americans show both.
The M lineage, the research explains, is “today found predominantly in Asia, Australasia, and the Americas, although it is almost absent in extant populations with European ancestry.” Because of this difference, it has been argued in the past that humans did not all leave Africa at the same time some 50,000 years ago — rather, they left in waves that were, genetically, somewhat different.My family history, for example, shows that we left Africa in 38,995 B.C. and took much the same route as the Middle-East refugees take today. After an extended stop in the Baltic's as the ice continued to ebb and flow through Europe, we slowly moved north and west until in 8725 B.C. we settled in our present area around Denmark and northern Germany, where we set up shop and proclaimed "THIS IS HOME!"
(My great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great, great grandmother on my fathers side!)